Archaeology Project Report

Problem
Analysis
Rationale
Results
Evidence
Reflection
Competencies
Blueprint

Problem Statement
The original setting for this project was a K-8 public school in Boulder, Colorado. In 1999 I received funding through a grant from the Boulder Valley school for Excellence in Education, to create a method of teaching history, archaeology and anthropology to 2nd through 8th grade students. To that end I created simulated archaeological excavation of the five ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome, Israel, Egypt and Mesopotamia. The dig follows five distinct time periods of each civilization, from a hunter/gatherer, period up to approximately 300AD. These periods were chosen to reflect the evolution and changes of the cultures through war, environmental impacts, trade, immigration, and technological innovations. The class was considered a successful and innovative method of self directed, experiential education by both participating students and teacher observers. The course has become an integral part of the Ancient Civilization history curriculum that is taught on rotation in the school every three years.

The problem is that I no longer work at the school, having instead enrolled in the graduate program at UCD. Teachers at Horizon’s have requested instruction in how to continue independently offering the class. Considerable resources and time went into the projects materials and curriculum design, which should continue to be utilized. Further, other school programs have also expressed interest in using the materials and course content. If the curriculum were more widely circulated as an open resource, it could provide an innovative model of how to augment teaching in a variety of disciplines. This project is in response to the requests.
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Situation Analysis
The success of this class is dependent on the teacher having an overview of archaeology, anthropology and some knowledge of the history of the cultures and how they interrelated through time. The course is very time intensive to set up and requires a lot of prerequisite knowledge. While the subject matter expert (myself) is available for consult and support, I need to organize, archive and transmit the contents, procedures, and methodology of the course so it is easily available and useful to others.
The scope and shape of this project will be determined by ongoing dialogue with the teacher recipient’s needs and feedback. The ultimate goal of the project will be that a K-12 teacher can read through the class contents, research information, and then recreate the course independently of the subject matter expert (SME). The needs assessment model that best fits this project design is the Innovation Model.

Learning Objectives
1. Comprehend and relate an overview of the history, discipline and methods of archaeology as it pertains to surveying, excavation, cataloging and researching artifacts and developing theories about past civilizations.
2. Use excavation processes, documentation, and research methods in order to run the simulated “dig”.
3. Gain a cognitive method of understanding how cultures evolve and change, and provide both historic and current examples.
4. Impart important historical periods and changes as pertains to the available specific artifacts of the project.
5. Use the course text materials, equipment, and archaeological artifacts to recreate the excavation and teach the class.
6. Assess student’s final presentations based on the individual teachers, or suggested criteria.

As previously noted this project will be designed in a teaching environment where it is possible to get reasonably prompt feedback through peer review and comments. Teachers I have interviewed have stated that because of the materials complexity, they would appreciate having a concise method of organizing, understanding and researching this course content.

Learner Analysis
The educational prerequisites for learning this material are an ability to read to the 12th grade level and have a high school level grasp of history and geography. Motivation would be necessary to take the time to gain the information and recreate the simulation, The material preparation would be provided in the introduction to the course. Metacognitive understandings and reflection would be a benefit, as the course requires modeling of open-ended questioning and self-directed learning to comprehend and synthesize the many pieces of information.

The teacher/learners for this course in the Boulder, Colorado school all have college degrees, most at the Masters level. They are highly motivated self-directed learners who are already interested in this course. A mix of genders with a similar middle class background, this particular group is unique only in that most are unusually comfortable with technologically, well traveled, and familiar with different cultures.

The secondary learners of this material are the students. I have taught this class approximately 90 times to 2nd through 8th graders, and have developed some sense about how to modify the material for age and ability levels. As this is an experiential class I have found most students to be motivated to discover the artifacts and form theories as to their significance. Students view the “dig” as fun and enjoy the open-ended questioning and “treasure hunting” aspect.
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Rationale for Approach
See Archaeology Blueprint
After considering the amount of lesson plans, resource materials, web links, and visual aids necessary to incorporate the class information, I decided that an instructional web site would be the most efficient and accessible method of delivery. The scope and shape of the site will be determined by ongoing dialogue with the teacher recipient’s needs and feedback as it develops.

The goal of the site will be for a K-12 teacher to read through the contents, research information and then recreate the course independently of the subject matter expert (SME).
Learning Objectives
After researching the proposed web site, and its hyperlinks to resource material, the teacher/learners should be able to:

Independently navigate through the site, understand instructions and procedures, and reference whatever material is needed.
Use the course text materials, online external reference links, course equipment, and artifacts to recreate the excavation and teach the class.
Assess student’s final presentations based on the individual teachers, or web site suggested criteria.
Enhance the existing instruction and reference materials through feedback to the SME, post interesting web links, resources and reflections about their experience teaching this class.

Teachers I elicited comment from three years ago have already stated that because of the materials complexity, they would appreciate having a concise method of organizing, understanding and researching this course content, such as the proposed web site.This project will go through formative evaluation this ’03 -’04 school year when I introduce the site to Horizon’s. This teaching environment will offer reasonably prompt feedback through peer review, on site conversations, and comments. As this course rotation is coming up this year the rewards and challenges are timely to all stakeholders.
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Results
See Archaeology Project Web Site
The Archaeology web site is almost ready to use as a resource tool.
Horizon’s teachers have asked me to teach the beginning class of each series to set the tone for the Ancient Cultures Curriculum, and depending on my job schedule this year I will do so. In August, I will be sending out this link to the Horizon’s teachers for beginning feedback. The Ancient Cultures Curriculum will begin in late September.
How successful the web site works at relaying the curriculum content will be assessed by three methods.
1. Assessment will be received by interviewing SME in the fields of archaeology, history and anthropology to refine the course content and get feedback as to curriculums accuracy. At that time research into references supporting content information will also be requested.
2. A survey questionnaire will be developed for each section of the site and given to teachers at the school. Teachers will be interviewed for feedback on curriculum content and delivery as sections are developed.
3. I am including my e-mail address in a reflection section in the site, and will update this section with questions and suggestions e-mailed to me. A summary of these contacts will be kept in the provided reflection section, so that sites viewers can see others progress and challenges using the materials.
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Evidence of Value
A significant part of the curriculum has already been developed and successfully taught. Student assessment was conducted through observations on the ability of small student groups to excavate a dig site, catalogue artifacts, document, and theorize about their discoveries. The groups shared archaeological journal was presented and shared with the other students for peer review. Students were assessed on the depth and understanding relayed in their journals and from the required 15 minute oral presentations on the last class of the course. Because this site is still in progress, it has not yet been evaluated but I consider this next year to provide a much feedback and many changes that will refine and enhance its usability.
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Reflection
This project has been an ongoing labor of love for the past six years. Looking back I think to the beginning of this project when I first wrote the science grant, received the money, and spoke at the Apple Foundations Awards ceremony. The Foundation has told me that this project has been an often referenced example of success for the Boulder Valley when they are looking for corporate financial support.

Students from Horizon’s, who have gone onto high school, have shared that the course helped provide them with a foundation for understanding cultures and history. Surveys from Horizon’s, collected from the years this curriculum was taught, revealed students listing this class as one of their favorite learning experiences. Remembering their excitement on exploring the artifacts and guessing at uses, environment, and the life stories of people, who may have used the objects, were the most rewarding aspects of this instruction.

Creating the curriculum and the website has been a poigniant journey for me through the ILT graduate program as well. It reflects my joy and passion for learning and teaching. Underlying this is my belief that history curriculum can be an exciting interactive topic told through stories and experience. I also realized that the success of this program is because of the constructivist approach I instinctively take to instruction, and reflecting on this project reaffirms my belief in the strength of experiential education.

The parts of the site instruction that I most enjoyed were sharing my experiences and metacognitive reflections while teaching this information

I hope overtime, as my technical skills increase, that I will be able to enhance this site with more interactivity. I have considered creating a computer simulated dig to enhance the site that I may eventually develop into educational software.

So many plans, so little time to finish them all, I believe this particular project will be an ongoing part of my life in the future.
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Competencies
Demonstration of Competency 1:
Continued improvement of professional practice that requires critical inquiry, professional development, and reflective practice

The Archaeology Site met this requirement through the work required to create the initial curriculum, and organizing, archiving and expanding the instruction through creating a web site. The site broadens the original intent as an open source accessible, instructional tool and resource for any interested instructors. The creation of the site demanded critical inquiry to research and sythesize complex infromation. This project also encouraged professional development as a resource tool for enhancing the teaching of history. Lastly the care I took to create teaching notes explaining the deeper metacognitive process I used to teach showed my reflection of the material of the curriculum in process.
Demonstration of Competency 2:
Designs instruction or human performance strategy to meet the needs of learners.

This responsibility was met by the creation of the Archaeology Site to act as a stand alone resource and lesson plan accessible to any user who has a computer and internet access. Teachers are gennerally busy people in the classroom and I wanted this instruction to be available for "just in time" research, available to anticipate and answer teachers needs while in the classroom. The secondary learners also experienced this curriculum as meeting their needs for an experiential method of teaching Ancient Civilizations.
Demonstration of Competency 3:
Uses a variety of media to deliver instruction to students and to engage students in learning.

Over the course of creating this curriculum and web site, I utilized web technology, face-to-face presentation, small group work, hands-on experiential activities, video and further resource links to web sites and articles to meet this responsibility for both teachers, and their students.
Demonstration of Competency 4:
Understands how to capitalize on the capacities and abilities of learners
.
I gained knowledge of the capacities and abilities of learners for this curriculum while teaching this course to different age groups of children. This experience allowed me to observe what type of instruction worked best for varying abilities. Further, while working with teachers I tried to notice what material seemed more difficult for instructors inexperienced with teaching archaeology, or anthropolgy, and stress the neccesary scaffolding for relating the concepts of societal evolution I thought important.
Demonstration of Competency 5:
Manages complex projects and resources in support of learning
This entire experience has been a complex and rewarding project..Choosing to teach the history of five civilizations through experiential education, demanded that I collect funding, buy equipment, create and purchase artifacts, and then develop a curriculum and story that reasonably matched the experience of an archaeological excavation. Later transferring this knowledge to other instructors required me to build a web site, and write instruction that anticipated teachers needs in helping their students. Continuing to teach this curriculum next year, while assisting teachers in learning the material and further developing the site, will allow me to evaluate and improve the instruction, and delivery of this project..

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Blueprint

Final Blueprint
By Kim Hansen

I. Problem
A. Context

The setting is a K-8 public school within the Boulder, Colorado school district. Teachers at the school have requested instruction in a course that has become an integral part of the Ancient Civilization history curriculum taught on rotation every three years. The class is a method of teaching history and culture to students via the use of a simulated archaeological excavation of the five ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome, Israel, Egypt and Mesopotamia. The dig follows 5 distinct time periods of each civilization from their neo-lithic period up to approximately 300AD. These periods were chosen to reflect the changes of the cultures through war, environmental impacts, trade, immigration, and technical innovation. The class has been considered a successful and innovative method of self directed, experiential education by participating students and teacher observers.
B. Problem Definition
Originally funded through the Boulder Apple Foundation Excellence in Education science grant program, considerable resources and time went into materials and curriculum design that should continue to be utilized. There is a preexisting receptive audience that is interested in the class and has requested information on how they could recreate the experience for their students. The problem is that the course curriculum is very dependent on the teacher having an overview of archaeology, anthropology and some knowledge of the history of the cultures and how they interrelated through time. The course is time intensive to set up and requires a lot of preparation for pertinent prerequisite knowledge.
The subject matter expert (myself) is no longer on staff at the school and while I can be available for consult and support, it is necessary to transmit the contents, procedures, and method of the course via an accessible format. Further, other programs have also expressed interest in using the materials and course content. I believe that if the curriculum were more widely circulated in a Web format it would provide an innovative model of how to augment teaching history for any interested instructor. This project is in response to the requests.

II. Needs Assessment
A. Needs

Those requesting the curriculum have articulated the need for this project. This web site is in response to those requests. The scope and shape of the site will
be determined by ongoing dialogue with the teacher recipient’s needs and feedback as it develops. The ultimate goal of the site will be that a K-12 teacher can read through the contents, research information and then recreate the course independently of the subject matter expert (SME). The needs assessment model that best fits this project design is the Innovation Model. The project is itself an innovation. It is being created out of a need to make the curriculum delivery more accessible for interested teacher/learners to teach to their students. It is offered in the hope of enhancing other schools history curriculum. It is filling the need for an experiential method of teaching about ancient cultures. As the curriculum has already been designed and successfully taught, the assessments will pertain to how well the SME has created the curriculum and communicated and referenced the necessary tools and information to other teacher/learners. Continual assessment for this site will come through built in questions and open-ended suggestion feedback prompts provided for other subject matter experts and teacher/learners as I create the various sections. It is my hope that this will continue to be a dynamic and continually improving web project for as long as it remains available. Ongoing assessment and innovations will be part of the design structure.
B. Learning Objectives
After researching the proposed web site, and its hyperlinks to resource material, the teacher/learners should be able to:

Independently navigate through the site, understand instructions and procedures, and reference whatever material is needed.
Comprehend and relate an overview of the history, discipline and methods of archaeology as it pertains to surveying, excavation, cataloging and researching artifacts and developing theories about past civilizations.
Use excavation processes, documentation, and research methods in order to run the simulated “dig”.
Gain a cognitive method of understanding how cultures evolve and change, and provide both historic and current examples.
Impart important historical periods and changes as pertains to the available specific artifacts of the project.
Use the course text materials, equipment, and archaeological artifacts to recreate the excavation and teach the class.
Assess student’s final presentations based on the individual teachers, or web site suggested criteria.

As previously noted this project will be designed in a teaching environment where it is possible to get reasonably prompt feedback through peer review and comments. The course was just taught in rotation last year and it’s rewards and challenges are still fresh in stakeholder minds. Teachers I have elicited comment from have already stated that because of the materials complexity, they would appreciate having a concise method of organizing, understanding and researching this course content, such as the proposed web site.
III. Initial Instructional Analysis
A. Learner Characteristics

The teacher/learners for this course in the Boulder, Colorado school all have college degrees, the majority of which are at the Masters level. They are highly motivated self-directed learners who have a pre existing interest in this course. A mix of genders with a similar middle class background, this particular group is unique only in that most are well traveled and familiar with different cultures.
The web site is designed for these learner characteristics as it fits the teacher profile I have experienced, and the audience for which the site is ultimately geared.
The secondary learners of this material are the students. As this is an experiential class I have found most students to be motivated to discover the artifacts and form theories as to their significance. Students view the “dig” as fun and enjoy the treasure hunting aspect. I have taught this class approximately 90 times to 2nd through 8th graders, and have developed some sense about how to modify the material for age and ability levels. Further it is clear that not every school or classroom has the time, space or resources to recreate the program in its entirety. So the site will include a teachers guide as to how one might alter or simplify the project process while still addressing learner objectives.
B. Content Learning task
The educational pre requisites for learning this material are an ability to read to the 12th grade level and navigate a web site. Teacher/learners should have a high school level grasp of history and geography. Motivation would be necessary to gain the information and recreate the simulation, The material preparation would be provided in the introduction to the course. Metacognitive understandings would be a benefit, as the course requires self-directed learning abilities to comprehend a lot of pieces of information and synthesize them to an overview that they can communicate.
C. Environment
The environment for the class material is accessed via computer. However the environment created for the secondary student/learners will be a classroom that will be able to accommodate five, 200lb plastic bins and accompanying excavation accessories. This will be described in more detail in course material sections.
D. Assessing Outcomes
A significant part of the curriculum has already been developed and successfully taught approximately 90 times. Student assessment was made on the ability of small student groups to excavate a dig site, catalogue artifacts and documents and theorize about their discoveries in the groups shared archaeological journal. Students were assessed on the depth and understanding relayed in their journals and from the required 15 minute oral presentations performed at the last class of the course.

Assessment on how well the web site works at relaying the curriculum content will be by three methods.
1. Assessment will be received by interviewing SME in the field to refine course content and get feedback as to curriculum accuracy. At that time research into references supporting content information will also be requested.
2. A survey questionnaire will be developed for each section of the site and given to teachers at the school. Teachers will be interviewed for feedback on curriculum content and delivery as sections are developed.
3. When the web site is offered I will monitor it for questions and suggestions e-mailed to me. A summary of these contacts will be kept in a provided section so that the sites viewers can see others progress and challenges as people use the materials.

IV. Design Sketch Instructional Strategies
The design strategies for this course are discussed in the following curriculum section of the class. These instructional strategies are what make this class a successful teaching program. The curriculum begins with an overview of the class stating the learning objectives and goals for the students, It then continues with a conceptual overview for teachers, explaining why I created the class as I did and relaying some instructional strategies I used in design and teaching. Further instructional strategies will be specified in blue print and articulated throughout the 10-hour class content relayed in the site.Teacher overview
Learning objectives
The goals of this class are to give a conceptual and experiential understanding of culture and archaeology through:
An overview of Archaeology;
i. What archaeologist do
ii. A brief history of Archaeology
iii. Excavation and field techniques
iv. How other sciences interact
v. Lab work
vi. Cataloguing and researching artifacts
vii. Journal work
A conceptual framework for how to view culture
An understanding of what effects cultures through times, looking at past cultures and how they evolve and de evolve through time
Excavation of the five bins with ongoing discussion of the history and culture of Egypt, Greece, Rome, Egypt, Israel, and Mesopotamia
An opportunity for
i. Cooperative learning
ii. For presentation
iii. Self-directed learning

Conceptual Overview of Instructional Strategies
Having developed this class and taught it a number of times I can attest to both the rewards and challenges of transmitting the archaeological experience and the conceptual understanding of cultures to students. I t is often difficult to get students interested in history. It is always challenging to know how to bring the past alive and make it relevant to student’s current worldview. Creating the simulated digs offers such an opportunity because it gives the students a hands on sense of individual discovery that is so crucial to learning. Further, because this is a cooperative and somewhat self-directed learning experience the class environment often becomes one of lively exploration, discussion and open-ended debate, which enhances their team work skills and cognitive thinking about the class content.

There are many ways to understand and learn about the culture and histories of the Mediterranean, Fertile Crescent area and other ancient civilizations. The conceptual framework I created in this class fit what I felt was important for scaffolding student’s knowledge of cultural development. The framework also fit what was depicted with the artifacts I was able to collect for the dig site bins. I wanted the artifacts to tell a story of how societies as a whole developed, and changed, with some provoked speculation about what the people who lived in that time might have been like. The artifacts had to tell that story, with progression of civilization moving from stone to bronze to iron tools and weaponry, hand built to wheeled pottery, evolving artwork, architecture and trade items.

I divided the cultures (Greece, Rome, Egypt, Isreal and Mesopotamia) history into 5 periods of each geographic areas neo-lithic inhabitation (new stone age varying from around 10,000 to 6,000 BC) through to the time of Constantine (around 300 AD). Then I made conceptual divisions depicting how a culture emerges from hunter/gatherer to a stable society, and evolves through impacts such as war, trade, technological changes, natural disasters, and interaction with other cultures. The period distinctions were somewhat arbitrary, and depended on the timelines offered and artifacts available. For example in showing technological changes in Egypt I used the depiction of the Hyksos invasion in which they conquered the bronze age Egyptians with their smelted iron weapons and horse drawn chariots.

In depicting 5 cultures I felt it was important to emphasize that none of these civilizations existed in isolation, and instead create a dynamic picture of how this whole area interacted through time. At times teaching this class felt very much like running a 5-ring circus. Every cultures evolution from neo-lithic period to a stable society varied thousands of years from Mesopotamia being the oldest, to Rome being the most recent. Yet within that time through trade, conquest and migration each culture impacted the others. This interaction is one of the most crucial areas for a teacher to emphasize and really comes into play in the early part of the excavation when students are discovering Roman coins and mass-produced red Roman pottery throughout all the sites. During Alexander the Great’s conquest of Europe and Asia students can again find clues of the far reaches of Greece’s domain. So too can Egyptian artifacts be discovered in the time of Cleopatra’s reign intermixing with Rome and Greece.

This class can be intimidating to teach, there is a lot of necessary preparation and pre requisite knowledge. It is important to establish some pedagogical credibility and understanding of the history of this area, anthropology, and also of archaeology. I have included most of my lecture notes; with these as a guide most teachers should be able to use them to build their own presentations. My experience with lecturing students is that I rarely lecture for more than 15 minutes at a time and usually interrupt even that to ask students questions and bring them into the discussion. This promotes their critical thinking and avoids boredom.

Once the excavations begin the materials really guide the students through a self-directed path of discovery in which the teacher’s role becomes one of asking questions, guiding analysis, conceptual understanding, and creative thinking. Thus the class is meant to scaffold learners from a dependent, instructor led, supplantive model, to a more group oriented, discovery based, generative model.

The excavations really provided a great opportunity to work with students on their teamwork and cooperative learning skills. I often had to mediate issues of rotations of roles as everyone wanted to “dig” and few wanted to record. By scheduling rotating 15-minute job shifts all the students experienced the roles of digger, sifter, artifact “bagger”, ID tag maker, and journal recorder. This job sharing built empathy for the others duties and helped divide both the responsibilities and excitement when discoveries were made.

The journal entries recorded reinforces student’s group thinking, imagination, deductive reasoning and writing skills. It is important to emphasize that aside from having a basic notion of the time periods and cultural shifts there are really no “wrong” answers in the journals. In fact I occasionally put odd artifacts in the bins with no prescribed purpose to show that often archaeologists are just working with best guesses. I always felt it was important for students to feel that the bins were an open ended detective story in which all interpretations were considered plausible, so they could take risks with their speculations. This ability to take risks reinforced their self-directed strategies in the class. I have experienced that the more fun and openness the students feel towards taking risks with their speculations, the more creative their thinking became.

My experience with the journals and presentations is that the student’s stories varied a great deal from very literal reporting to often romantic and personal speculation on what the individuals in the sites may have been like. This is really the fun and magic of the class. The sharing of the journals in presentation often amazed me in the student’s creativity, scope and depth of analysis. My role as a teacher during this process was one of asking question, provoking thoughts and interpretations, enjoying and challenging their ideas and communicating my appreciation.

Class Curriculum for the Archaeology Project
Pre class preparation:
It is important to view all material on the web site before teaching this class. There are a series of suggested videos in the resource section, available in most libraries that would also be advantageous to see, to gain a well-rounded picture of archaeology, anthropology, cultures, their interaction and place in history. There are also numerous links to web sites on Archaeology, Anthropology, and information about each of the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Israel and Rome. Further it is recommended that you visit a current archaeological excavation site to see the techniques in action. There is usually a “dig” going on through neighboring Universities, Historical Societies or Museums. Spending a day visiting a site in progress is usually interesting and will greatly increase your credibility with students when you relay your experience. You may also find it valuable to take students as a field trip. If no site is available there are several videos listed in the resource section from which you can take advantage.
Materials Preparation:
If you are using the Horizon’s Alternative School’s materials you will find:

Ten 55 gallon wheeled plastic bins with covers
Ten square sifting screens
Ten plastic buckets with trowels and brushes
Boxes of small plastic bags
Master copy of identification tags
Ten timelines, one for each culture
Two laminated time lines of whole area together
Pictures of facsimiled artifacts with description and dates
Five master copies of Archaeological Journals, one for each culture
Instructions on how to create and fill the bins
The Artifacts

Artifact Inventory:
When you open each bin you will find five plastic bags containing the artifacts for each culture. These artifacts can be separated into 2 bins to allow you to run two 10-hour classes concurrently per semester or quarter. These bags are labeled A, B, C, D, and E for the accompanying stratigraphic levels with “E” being the oldest and deepest level. Each level is designated by distinct time periods and their descriptions follow.
A. Most recent “multi-cultural” level showing the intermixing of the cultures. Epitomized by evolved technology and art.
B. “Stable society,” when each culture was distinct and epitomized what would become that cultures “style”. Usually unique art work depicting a temple, household, tomb etc. Bronze or iron metalwork jewelry and wheeled pots
C. A “shift” or change in each culture perhaps depicting war, conquest, environmental impact, technological advance, trade, migration etc. Usually shown through different styled artwork, technology, or materials change, ash, bones iron arrowheads and human teeth.
D. The beginning of sustainable agriculture heralds “Emerging civilization” in this level. The society begins to form once the lands inhabitants discover ways to control the nearby waterways to divert flooding and provide irrigation. Once they begin to farm, rather than hunt and gather they slowly settle into permanent dwellings and establish community infrastructure such as rods, city walls, temples, water supplies, food storage areas and market places. The society becomes organized into specialized skills such as potter, baker, metalworker, and classes of rich, poor, merchant, laborer, and priests. Etc. They people store grain and domesticate animals to meet times of less abundance. This site is usually depicted with grain, wheeled pottery, bronze tools, simple beads, craft and artwork to show leisure time and a more settled lifestyle.
E. This level is symbolic of the “Hunter/Gatherer” people. Home sites could be seasonal, and of simple construction. You might find, a cook hearth, copper metal work, hand built pottery, baskets, stone arrowheads, rock carvings, and animal bones.
The artifact inventory for each culture is relayed below, with suggested site location, era, and possible story lines included:
Egypt
Level A
Multi Cultural
600BC to 300 AD
Harwodj figure, Bachis Bull relief, Roman coins, sculpted Greek head, glass beads.
Could be trading center or wealthy household suggestive of Ptolemyic and Roman Period.
Level B
Stable Society 1,300 BC Canopic jar, woven fan, cat’s head, glass beads, bronze pot, bronze crane, Nefertiti plaque, Ramses as child, Akkenatwa and Nefertiti, Eye of Horus.
Could be tomb, or craftsman studio for tomb.
Level C
Shift Conquest, Hyksos invasion 1,700 BC
Iron points, horse pottery renditions, human teeth, chariot parts (models), and ash.
Location town center, battle site.
Level D
Emerging Society 4,000 to 3,000 BC
Tablet of Namur, Bronze points, white pottery, basketry, glass making block
Location town center, marketplace
Level E
Neo-lithic 8,000 BC
2 petroglyphs, reed basket, bones, ash, carbon and burned bones (to suggest cooking hearth), human teeth, stone points, clay fetish
Location reed and mud hut, family tribe near river.
Mesopotamia
Level A
Greek/Roman expansion 400BC-300AD
Broken red and red/black pottery, glass beads, Roman and Greek coins.
Town center, or trading area.
Level B
Babylon 2,000-500 BC
Broken glazed tiles, 2 bronze pots, carbon and ash, iron points, Babylonian carved tablet, glass beads, Egyptian cats head, bones, teeth, and little goat statue.
Temple, or town center, destroyed in battle.
Level C
Stable society 5,000-3,000 BC
Glasswork, scribe cuneiform tablets, wheeled pottery.
Scribe classroom
Level D
Emerging Civilization 10,000-6,000 BC
Bronze points, wooden comb, early cuneiform seal, basketry, wheels, donkey tooth, hand built pottery, bronze bracelet, 2 ram heads, wooden “thingy”, fish bones. Include barley grain in with broken pottery.
Level E
Neo-lithic pre 10,000 BC
2 petroglyphs, reed, carbon and ash for hearth, red clay fetishes, teeth, bones, stone points, and flakes, copper bowl and hand built pottery.
Tribal hunter/gatherer community in reed and mud hut site.
Israel
Level A
300 BC-300 AD Greek/Roman influence.
Broken red, black and red/black pottery, Roman and Greek coins, Greek statue head, glass beads, and glazed tile.
Location, town square.
Level B
600 BC-300 BC Babylon influence
Cuneiform writing, broken glazed tile, Hebrew parchment writing inside pottery
Star of David, Menorah charms, broken pottery, oil lamps, glass beads, red pottery with Hebrew writing.
Temple site
Level C
10,000-8,000 BC Shift-War.
Assyrian plaque of wounded lioness, iron arrowheads, oil lamps, glass beads, teeth, bones, carbon.
Town conquered in battle.
Level D
Emerging Civilization 8,000-3,000 BC
Grain grinder figure in red pottery, wheeled pottery, Egyptian cathead, bronze arrowheads, glass making block, rams head. Include barley grain with pottery.
Household
Level E
Neo-lithic 14,000-8,000 BC
Bones, shells, 2 petroglyphs, teeth, wooden carved stamp, bone bead, hand built pottery, bull fetish, carbon and ash for hearth.
Early hunter/gatherer settlement
Greece
Level A
100 BC –300AD Roman Empire influence
Red pottery, Corinthian column model, statue plaque, 2 statue heads, coins.
Market place/ town center.
Level B
350-100 BC Shift- Alexander the Greats expansion and conquest of Asia.
Broken tile, Tibetan seed pod from India, Indian Buddha, 2 statue heads, Greek writing on tablet, military canteen, iron arrowhead, Egyptian scarab and cathead, jewelry.
Many trade goods. Could be returning soldiers household. Old military campsite.
Level C
750-350 BC Athens classical Golden Age of Greece
Greek plate, black/red pottery, Athena’s owl sculpture, owl coin, iron arrowheads, shells, foot statue, head statue.
Ruined temple or town center.
Level D
Date….
Olympic figure, 2 bronze pots, basket, shells, glass beads, 2 Greek plaques, white pottery, tragedy/comedy masks.
Ruined temple, or town center.
Level E
Pre 9,000 BC
2 Petroglyphs, basketry, bones, carbon and ash, bone and shell beads, human teeth, stone arrowheads, shells.
Communal family tribe, carbon suggest hearth.
Rome
Level A
Multi cultural 100-300 AD
Pot with stand, 2 wooden toys, 2 statue heads, bronze pot, 2glass jars, beads, Egyptian cat head, red pottery, shells, Greek and Roman coins, “Gaul” seals, crucifix.
Household with children’s toys, or marketplace. Can move toys to level B.
Level B
Shift-Volcanic eruption of Pompeii
Pipe under broken ceramic tile (suggests plumbing under tiled floor), broken pottery, lots of ash and carbon, glass beads, jewelry, burned bones, Roman writing, Greek coins.
Suggestion women’s bedroom/household covered by ash cloud eruption.
Level C
Date…
Black and red pottery, whale statue, 2 Greco/Roman plaques, shells, iron arrowheads, little elephants, 2 small Grecian heads, glass beads.
Suggestion ruins after Hannibal and Punic wars.
Level D
Emerging Civilization 3,000 BC
Coiled glazed pottery, black pottery, 2 bronze pots, woven basket, glass beads, bronze dish, (include barley grains with pottery).
Level E
6,000 BC
Bone, carbon, basketry, 2 petroglyphs, coiled pottery, stone arrow heads, copper pot, human teeth, shells, bone bead.
Tribal lake culture, wooden post house site.
For further descriptions of the artifacts with detailed information about their significance to each culture go to artifact section of web site.
Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan1Day1

Sample Lecture
An Introduction to Archaeology
Learner objective: Students will understand:
What archaeologist do
A brief history of Archaeology
An introduction to excavation and field techniques
How other sciences interact
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
VCR, TV and videotapes of “Raiders of the Lost Ark” and “The Mummy” (original). Show first 5+ minutes of where Indiana Jones steals idols head and escapes temple. Show the part of the Mummy where the archaeologists break into the tomb.
To Bring, To Do Ahead
Review videos or readings on archaeology. Prepare any overheads or power point presentation you have chosen to use for the lecture from this material.
Cue videos for viewing.
Begin Class
7 minutes Show video clip of “Raiders of the Lost Ark”
Deploy attention, arouse interest and motivate students
15 Minutes Introduce curriculum overview and promote discussion:
Ask students to share their ideas about what archaeologists do.
Engage them in discussion and get them thinking about subject immediately to start examining concepts.
The History and Disciplines of the science, an Overview
What is Archaeology?
Have them recall prior knowledge of their experience or concepts of Archaeology.
Define subject and give information
Archaeology Defined
Archeology is the study of ancient man, through the techniques of excavation and exploration of sites where humans once dwelled. It is the science of researching, hypothesizing and theorizing about past peoples through the study of the artifacts and remains they left behind. (It is not the study of Dinosaurs that is paleontology.) Make distinction to emphasize definition
Why study Archaeology?
Ask them to pursue why the class information may be relevant to them. Arouse interest, introduce and articulate reasons for studying the content. Follow up by asking them for other applicable reasons.
Gain a deeper understanding of humankind
See how cultures evolve and de evolve
Gain insight into how we became the people we are today
Study the impacts that ancient cultures have had on modern day
Understand and possibly avoid repeating mistakes of the past
Build on the enlightenment of the past
Introduce content and overview of the class to students.
Preview class curriculum:
Learning objectives
To learn about what archaeologists do
A brief overview and history of the science of archaeology
To gain an understanding about how cultures evolve and devolve over time.
To find out what effects and changes cultures
To learn more about the ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome, Israel, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
To learn how Archaeologists survey, excavate, catalogue artifacts, record and theorize about ancient cultures.
Preview today’s lesson, and provide organization for class content.
What archaeologist do
A brief history of Archaeology
An introduction to excavation and field techniques
How other sciences interact
State that today we’re going to talk about what archaeology is.
Direct content, prepare concept.
3 minutes lecture
Archaeology is a science that destroys what it studies.
Attention grabbing provocative statement
Promote thought;
What does this mean?
When you excavate a site, you can never put it back together the way it was originally. Like trying to put back a chocolate layer cake after you've separated the layers. The best you can hope for is to document and take sufficient samples of all the information to recreate the site as best you can. Excavation work requires meticulous attention to detail, and exacting recording and cataloguing of artifacts and their provenience (site of origin, or found location). Archaeologists record their progress down in their dig site journals and photograph, measure the site and artifacts, and write down their observations while they dig. Very slow process.
The current policy on sites is to usually leave them intact and preserve them for future sciences. Excavation most often happens when a site will be disturbed due to construction or environmental changes like flooding, when the site is in danger of being lost anyway.
Ongoing excavations of ancient cities like Mesa Verde or Jamestown in this country, Chitchen Itza in Mexico, or many ancient dwellings in Greece, Italy and Egypt are usually run through Universities and museums as ongoing field schools. They are very expensive operations maintained for the significance they bring to ongoing research and education and are heavily endowed by grants and foundations.
History of Archaeology
7-minute video and lecture
Show video clip of original “The Mummy” approximately 5 minutes
Entertain, motivate, grab attention, and reestablish context before giving historical information.
The history of Archaeology began with tomb robbing and treasure hunting site antiquities for the wealth of precious materials such as precious metals, jewels, and art works they contained. Over time there developed a market in antiquities as curiosities about former civilizations. Eventually the interest in these old cultures became a science of studying past peoples that we now know as archaeology.
Archeology is a relatively new science, only becoming a field of scientific research in the last century.
Archaeology as a Multidisciplinary science
15 minutes lecture
Archaeologists are people who tend to know a little about a lot of things.
If you enter into the field of archaeology you can expect to work with a number of other scientific disciplines. Some of these are:
Ask students to offer their own example, bring them into discussion
Each example of the assisting sciences needs to be fleshed out with examples.
Geology for survey work and for historic analysis of the landscape
Geochemistry for soils analysis, carbon dating (explain what this is see glossary for term definitions),
Botany for plant analysis remains to study old vegetation, climates, and diet, and site survey
Chemistry for a multitude of information on remains chemical analysis
Paleontology to examine bone remains, both animal and human
Forensics to study human skeletal remains, bone chemical analysis for diet, illness, age, sex, how they died, etc.
Linguistics to study ancient languages ex. Rosetta Stone (see glossary)
Genetics for DNA information to discover familial relationships
Art History for dating artistic artifacts, comparing style change impacts
Anthropology to study and compare existing cultures to speculate on how ancient peoples lived.
If you become an archaeologist you can expect to specialize in a particular culture and do specific research.
Some specializations include:
Pottery, weaving, architecture, carvings, jewelry, basketry, shells, stone tools glazes, tiles, etc.
5 minutes
Discuss your experiences of learning about archaeology motivate by sharing your interest and experience. Talk about how they can study archaeology via field schools when they go to college. Summarize material; recall main points to motivate conceptual structure of how to understand archaeology.
Question and answer period
End of class 1

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan2 Day2CulturesLearning Objectives:

students will gain
A conceptual framework for how to view culture
An understanding of what effects cultures through times,
A perspective of past cultures and how they evolve and de evolve
Comparison of a present culture in transition
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Overheads or power point for lecture. White board and markers for emphasizing points when talking about Africa
To Bring, To Do Ahead
Read article on “Africa” and about “Culture and changes” in article hyperlinks resource site section. You may want to copy these as a handout if you think students will use them.
5 minutes Review prior knowledge
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today.
20 minutes lecture and discussion on culture and a statement of today’s learning objectives with class
A conceptual framework for how to view culture
An understanding of what effects cultures through times,
A perspective of past cultures and how they evolve and de evolve
Comparison of a present culture in transition


How do cultures evolve and devolve/? (Rise and fall?)
Cultural Impacts

Technological:
Fire for heat, cooking, and altering environment
Wheel for transporting goods and travel such as the wheeled chariot
Metals raw and amalgams like tin and copper for bronze
Glass for art and containers
Potters wheel- helped create mass production and specialized skills
Emphasize how mass production and specialized skills creates class structures like merchant class, middle class shop keeper, baker, metal worker, potter etc.
Building materials- baking mud to make it impervious to water allowed flood control and irrigation
Weaponry ex smelting iron to make it harder than bronze
Political
War-conquer or being conquered
Hierarchy of classes rich poor stabilization of middle class
Government corruption distribution of wealth
Discuss how division of classes and creation of middle class may effect stability of culture
Government organization monarchy, tribal, representative
Welfare of people how were most vulnerable assisted by community Discussion of how children were reared, thought of, and educated
Infrastructure how was it paid for and used, taxes
Spiritual
How did the community understand phenomenal world, creation, and afterlife?
How much time did they spend in spiritual worship
What was the religious organization? Ex: pagan, polytheistic, monotheistic, animistic etc.
How much resources were devoted to religion ex: tombs and pyramids of Egyptians were large community activities requiring strong beliefs in afterlife and many resources.
Economic
Trade
Crafts
Natural resources
Discuss what some of the natural resources for these areas may have been
Immigration / Emigration, Shifts in population due to:
Famine, war, economics etc., created refugees,
Vulnerable populations
Shared wealth of information
Brought new ideas and vitality to stagnant cultures
Discuss benefits and problems of both immigration and emigration in our country and global view.
Environment
Floods- Noah archetype of many old flood stories
Droughts- Anasazi of South West
Plague-killed 2/3’s of Athens population
Discuss current AIDS epidemic prompts thinking for coming discussion about Africa.
Tidal waves- Destruction of early Miocene culture in Greece by tidal wave, myth of Atlantis
Volcanic eruptions- Pompeii15 Minutes lecture and discussion on:
Current example of a culture in change;
Rapidly de evolving in the last 20 years
Reestablishes relevance on information you have just imparted, draws them into thinking about current cultures for realistic example. Builds empathy and thus attitude learning for what past and present people may have experienced. Promotes critical thinking, and re enforces conceptual framework of understanding culture.
Ask students:
What culture has?
Great natural resources
Vibrant creative people
Rich cultural heritage
Currently effected by:
Drought
Famine
Political corruption
Poor infrastructure
War
Vulnerable refugees
Plague (of AIDS)
Let them think and discuss this for a few minutes processing the information before polling them for answers. Answers often include Bosnia, Israel, Afghanistan or other countries currently under stress. Discuss how even though those cultures may be highly troubled they have the infrastructure and or political support to stabilize through their countries impacts. Again emphasize attitude learning by discussing why cultures can survive and rebound through such changes as earthquakes, wars, plague, famine etc. if the society has invested in enough community resources is politically stable, or receives outside support. The instructional strategies are to promote their thinking about the concepts and relevance, recall and utilize prior knowledge, to think in a more global perspective and promote cooperative discussion.
Answer: Africa
Why?
Site some reasons.

African populations currently destabilized through tribal genocide and war.
Number of people believed to be infected by AIDS, emphasize that the age distribution of those infected is the 20 to 40 year range which is the crucial generation that creates wealth and cares for the children and elderly. If this age group disappears there is no one to maintain infrastructure and welfare.
Political corruption that allowed the leaching of the countries natural wealth and denied the community building of roads, hospitals, schools, clean wells etc. that are necessary to defend against impacts.
Outside political effects of the legacy of colonization and the cold war that denied the country stable government and self-rule.
Natural disasters of drought and famine in regions causing further dislocation and hardship on populations.

15 minutes Ask provocative questions to promote discussion and critical thinking
Discussion: Talk about other cultures currently under stress.
How are they surviving?
What happens to dislocated people?
A person die, starves, is not cared for, or educated, perpetuates same problems they derived from.
Remind them that Egyptian civilization lasted for 4,000 years.
Discussion: How old is our country? What stresses are currently impacting it?
Conclusion: Cultures are more vulnerable than we often think they are. We take stability for granted.
Discussion: What will future archaeologists think about our culture, TV, fast food, malls etc? This can be a really fun discussion to add humor and provoke thinking. I usually use analogies of the TV being like a shrine in our homes, fast food restaurants being places of worship and malls as marketplaces and community centers. I ask them what it would be like to go work on a pyramid after school as part of their community service5 minutes Question and answer
Summarize material; recall main points to motivate conceptual structure of how to understand culture. Motivate students by expressing appreciation of their shared insights to promote critical thinking, concept learning, and close.
End of class 2


Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 3 Day 3

Techniques of Archaeology
Learning Objectives: Students will learn about
Surveying sites
Excavation
Lab work,
Cataloging artifacts
Theorizing of site
And be given examples of site maps from cross section and overhead view
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Overheads ad power point for lecture and copies of blank and filled in site maps to create on the overheads or white board. To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring trowel, sifter and bucket, bags ID tags and journal.
5 minutes Review prior knowledge
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today
3 minutes Introduce today’s class objectives – Information Preview
Share Learning Objectives:
Excavation Process
This class begins to impart more technical, rather than conceptual information.
More of a “how to” class the information focuses on the process learning archaeologists use in excavation. Technical terms are introduced and discussed. Procedural learning concepts such as: showing an overview of the required steps, transitions, rules and applications of an archaeological dig will be specified.
15 minutes lecture
Introductory statement states problem and process
Excavating a site is a time consuming, labor intensive and expensive procedure. Most significant sites take years to complete the excavation and lab work necessary for a finished report. Because theories are always changing research is constantly reopened and evaluated for further clues into detecting the story behind past peoples and cultures.
Step 1
Investigate possibility of a site through written records, ex. Bible, "here say", interviewing neighboring populations, doing topical search for dwellings and artifacts, (remember don’t trespass or remove artifacts).
Step 2
If you believe you have found a site you must get landowners permission, digging permits, establish legal ownership of artifacts, and deal with any cultural religious, indigenous peoples rights or sensitivities to disturbing a site. Give examples such as the current issues with holy sites in Israel, Native American concerns in this country, unstable political situations in Iran etc.
Step 3
Establish funding source for paying dig and lab workers, administrators, and supplies. Most digs are usually in places people must travel to and be housed near.
Step 4
Survey and grid and dig a sampling of test pits, analyzing pit samples to guess at perimeters and scope of site.
Step 5
Plan out excavation. Assemble team of workers. Train and orient workers to site.
Step 6
Excavate using techniques of:
Trowling
Brushing
Sifting soil
Proveniencing artifacts
Measuring site and artifacts
Checking stratigraphy. Straigraphy is a particularly important term to define; my experience is that students often have a difficult time grasping the concept of things getting older the deeper down you dig. There will be further discussion of this in the following days class.
Removing finds.
Documenting and recording artifacts and progress in journals
Tagging and cataloging all finds
Taking soil and carbon samples
Talking with dig supervisor and other workers as you progress
Step 7
Lab work:
Clean and identify artifacts
Go through site samples for small artifacts missed by site sifting
Catalogue and research artifacts
Analyze soil, carbon, shell or bone samples
Step 8
Reporting

Working together to share information and make conclusions, excavation, lab and administrative supervisors talk together about the sites significance and meaning. Final reports are written and findings published. In the case of contract archaeology for construction remediation plans are made to excavate or preserve area.
5 minutes Question and answer
Summarize material; recall main points to motivate conceptual structure of how to understand culture. Motivate students by expressing appreciation of their shared insights to promote critical thinking, concept learning, and close.

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 4 Day 4
Introductions to the Journal

Learning Objectives: Students will learn about
Overview of Journal information
How to use the Journal
How to create journal “stories”
Example of other archaeologist’s journal.
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Overheads ad power point for lecture you will want to include pages of the journal as an overhead or Power Point.To Bring, To Do Ahead
Copies of the journals for each civilization.
5 minutes Review prior knowledge
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. The grid maps and stratigraphy cross sections are going to be particularly relevant for journal entries.
3 minutes Introduce today’s class objectives – Information Preview
Overview of Journal information
How to use the Journal
How to create journal “stories”
(20 minutes)
Hand out journals for students. Give them a couple of minutes to examine them before you start talking again as they are distracting. Allow discovery and then direct attention. Go page by page through the journal emphasizing what you feel is important in the resource information.
Journal Overview
Map of area
Brief history of that particular civilization from neo-lithic period to 300 AD
Procedures for excavation
Stratigraphic column cross section. When I hit this section I do a mock up of what it might be like to make a cross section of the playground outside, going from the last 30 years of the school, down through farmers, early settlers, explorers, Spanish, Native American, early mammals, dinosaurs and ancient sea to get them thinking about their own location and emphasizing the concept of stratigraphy. This can be a lot of fun for the kids. Let them brainstorm what artifacts may be in each level. It promotes their group thinking and risk taking.
Birds eye view of bin with four section grid
Copies of ID tags
Cultural timeline
Grid for each of the five levels
Story map for each of the five levels
Blank timeline for them to fill out
How to use the journal to create stories
(15 Minutes)
As I go through the journal I use overhead of blank grids to fill out on each civilization. We then speculate on what would be found inside an Egyptian tomb, and I would sketch the artifacts they come up with. Other ideas can be a town center, family kitchen, battle site, temple, child’s room, workshop etc. It is a good idea to show a representation of each time period, so include a hunter/gatherer site. The importance of this exercise is to model the process you go through in recording a site, and also to prepare and prompt their imaginations and deductive reasoning skills.
After you use the grid maps, repeat the same process with a cross section showing how you go down through time with the Mesopotamian culture (I use this because it’s the oldest and least familiar to students). Again the instructional strategy is to model behavior, re enforce the conceptual framework and prompt deductive reasoning.
Lastly, I lead students through a possible story line by laying out a grid map and allow them to speculate on what they might theorize about the people who dwelled there. Again the instructional strategy is to model behavior, re enforce the conceptual framework and prompt deductive reasoning.
( 5 minutes)
Example of other archaeologist’s journal
Here I share pages of journal entries made by other archaeologists. You can find example in the appendix, or you may see others you prefer. This gives students a sense of authenticity about the class exercise. It models the procedures and behaviors I want them to pursue and arouse interest.
End with 5 minutes question and answer
Summarize and close

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 5 Day 5
Introduction to Excavation

Learning Objectives:
Psychomotor learning
Excavation tools; a demonstration of their use
Cooperative learning
Picking work groups and selecting students to work on each culture a Discussion of how to work cooperatively
Examining how cultures interact through trade and conquest in Roman Era, talk about Rome’s organization abilities.
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Overheads ad power point for lecture.To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring out bins, excavation tools, buckets, sifters, journals, ID tags, baggies, containers for dirt, drop clothes if doing class inside.
5 minutes
Review prior knowledge
5 minutes
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. Share today’s learning objectives with the class.
Share Learning objectives
5 minutes
Excavation tools; a demonstration of their use
Begin by talking about excavation techniques, explain the importance of not shoveling deep thereby mixing levels, mimic removing dirt in small level sections, use analogy of scrapping icing off cake. Open bin and model procedure.
Go through all of the steps of the procedure thinking aloud as you dig, sift, find something, bag and tag it. Then record you find in the journal site map and speculate aloud about what the significance of the find is. This thinking aloud models the cognitive skills you want them to develop and also reenforces the procedure by auditory and visually modeling and articulating the process.
5 minutes
Picking work groups and selecting students to work on each culture. Discussion of how to work cooperatively
Ask students what cultures bin they would be interested in excavating. Give a quick statement of an interesting highlight of each civilization to arouse interest.
Put all cultures up on the board an assign students based on their preferences. This again re enforces the self-directed learning of students following their own interests. All bins should have at least five workers. I f you have more students in the class than 25 you can assign them according to their preferences. Less than that number should be divided evenly among sites. If there is a problem with too many students wanting to explore one culture (Egypt for example) mediate negotiations and compromises. I’ve never had a problem with students getting too stuck over this. Remind them that all the bins are interesting. Once team members have been assigned introduce the jobs descriptions they will share.
Jobs
1. Digger-excavates the bin
2. Sifter-sifts excavated dirt for small artifacts like beads shell and grains
3. Tagger –identifies and writes ID tag
4. Bagger-cleans and bags artifact with tag
5. Recorder-sketches artifact in location and records in journal
Cooperation
Talk with them about rotating jobs in 15-minute shifts.
Remind them that if their duties overwhelm one person, all work must stop till they catch up.
Stress that no artifact can be removed until the recorder has sketched it in location.
Stress that when they feel they have excavated that level fully everyone must stop to talk about what the significance of the level may be. Date, location, persons etc.

Open bins and begin excavation (35 minutes)
This is always a chaotic and exciting period. Teachers have to quickly circulate and see that people are doing their jobs correctly. The students themselves often self monitor and correct, with the feedback of their team members this re enforces both self-directed ad cooperative learning. Try to relax and remember that there’s very little that can go too wrong here.

Clean up and put away tools and supplies, close up bins (5 minutes)
5 minutes talk a little about Rome’s history from 100-300 AD, it’s expansion, and cultural organization. Discuss some of their findings.
5 minutes Question and answer period. Motivate by expressing excitement and appreciation for their work and good thinking and close.

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 6 Day 6
Excavation


Learning Objectives:
Review excavation techniques
Ask how team work went
Talk about creating journal stories againLearners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Nothing today
To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring out bins, excavation tools, buckets, sifters, journals, ID tags, baggies, containers for dirt, drop clothes if doing class inside. 5 minutes
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. Share today’s learning objectives with the class.
Learning Objectives:
Review excavation techniques
Ask how team work went
Talk about creating journal stories again
(5 minutes)
Lecture on Catalogue and lab work journal recording
Go over some of the student’s journal entries picking ones that best illustrate successful recording to bring attention and motivate behavioral procedure you want them to follow.
Ask how teamwork went,
Re enforce group nature of excavation process
Open bins and review excavation techniques 40 minutes
Begin excavation circulate around bins, draw attention to interesting artifacts ask questions and look at each groups journal.
5 minutes clean up and close bins
5 minutes question and answer period
End of class, summarize and close.

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 7 Day 7
Excavation
Learning Objectives:

Lecture Reemphasis on How Cultures develop
Lecture on how to assess time and use time line
Learners & Context
Room Setup To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring out bins, excavation tools, buckets, sifters, journals, ID tags, baggies, containers for dirt, drop clothes if doing class inside. 5 minutes
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. Share today’s learning objectives with the class.
Share Learning Objectives: 5 minutes
Reemphasis on How Cultures develop

Go back to information in lecture 2 about development of culture ask if they’ve seen any examples of this in their bin sites.
5minutes
How to assess time and use time line
Look over the time lines with the students. Ask them if they’ve been able to date any of their artifacts. What strategies did they use? Discuss
This points out and demonstrates student’s ability to transfer knowledge to a real example of a skill they’ve used in their excavation.
Begin excavation (40 minutes)
5 minutes Clean up and close bins
5 minutes Question and answer period, summarize and close.

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 8 Day 8
Excavation
Learning Objectives:

Last day of excavation and lab work
Lecture on hunter/gatherer communities
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring out bins, excavation tools, buckets, sifters, journals, ID tags, baggies, containers for dirt, drop clothes if doing class inside.
5 minutes
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. Share today’s learning objectives with the class.
Share Learning Objectives:
Talk with students about finishing up the excavation. Remind them to work on their timelines, speculations and stories for each level. Ask them to share any interesting finds they have made.5 minutes
Lecture on hunter/gatherer communities
Discuss what one might find in a hunter / gatherer community.
What were their lifestyles like?
Nomadic, seasonal, harsh, tribal oriented.
What religion do you think they had?
Remind them that this is the level they will probably be excavating today.

Begin excavation (40 minutes)
5 minutes Clean up and close bins
5 minutes Question and answer period, summarize and close.

Lesson Plan:
Lesson Plan 9 Day 9
Day to prepare Journal Presentations

Learning Objectives:
Groups display artifacts according to timeline
Groups finish writing journals
Groups Rehearse Presentations
Learners & Context
Room Setup tables to display artifacts
To Bring, To Do Ahead
Plan to talk about journals 5 minutes
Review information learned in previous days and tie it to new information presented today. Share today’s learning objectives with the class.
Share Learning Objectives:
10 minutes Groups display artifacts according to timeline
This exercise re establishes the cultures progression and assists them with creating a timeline. From this display they can see the “big picture” of their civilization. This kinesthetic and visual layout assists those who need to see things demonstrated in a linear fashion make cognitive connection with the cultures evolution.
Groups finish writing journals
Circulate and promote discussion. Draw positive attention to correct dating, and sequencing of artifacts and good deductive and imaginative reasoning. This motivates and draws attention to what you want to see in their journal writing and presentations.
Groups Rehearse Presentations
5 minutes Question and answer period, summarize and close.

Lesson Plan 10 Day 10
Group Presentations
Learning Objectives:

Groups display artifacts according to timeline
Group give 10 minute presentations
Learners & Context
Room Setup Media Used
Set up tables to display artifacts
To Bring, To Do Ahead
Bring Artifacts
5 minutes Allow students time to assemble their artifacts.
50 Minutes Group presentations in ten-minute intervals. Allow time for students to ask questions. Take notes on what you like about each presentation.

5 minutes Allow time for each student to say what he or she liked about each presentation.
Keep feedback positive to motivate and draw attention to each group’s strengths. This reenforces to students that this was a positive experience.
Summarize; show appreciation for their interest and hard work and close

How to evaluate Presentations, To be continued…
Glossary of Terms
Carbon Dating
Provenience
Stratigraphy
To be continued…Web Links
Egypt
* http://www.egyptology.com/kmt/ -This site gives an over view of Egyptian history.
* http://www.trms.ga.net/~jtucker/lessons/ss/egypt_ancient.html - Has lots of information on Egypt. It covers all subjects from mummies to Cleopatra.
* http://www.library.nwu.edu/class/history/B94/ - This site is more history oriented.
http://www.einpgh.org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/ -Daily life of Egyptians.To be continued
Hyperlinked ArticlesTo be continued
Suggested VideosBibliography
B. Tentative Format and Media
The tentative format is to transfer and organize existing course materials onto a web site using Dreamweaver. Instructions and prerequisite research on how to use these materials will be a substantive part of the Web site.

C. Scope and Length
It’s difficult to guess right now. The course has approximately 30 pages of information. These include; artifact catalogues of each culture, brief summaries of the civilizations histories, journal books mock ups, lecture notes and examples of journal sketches of excavation find. The instructional unit for teachers could easily be another 10 pages. The use if hyperlinks to reference material will be extensive.
D. Fit within Existing Curricula and Program
This course is designed primarily to fit within an existing Social Studies/History Matrix. As such depending on my ability to successfully deliver the information the class will be continue to be an integral part of the that matrix. It is difficult to predict how well the course will fit within other programs. However as it is purely voluntary and only meant to augment a study of ancient civilizations, rather than replace existing curriculum I can’t imagine a negative consequence other than teacher’s underestimation of the amount of preparation involved.
E. Assessment Strategies
Assessment Strategies are as proposed in the earlier Assessing Outcomes section in III D.